You should spend about 20 minutes on Questionswhich are based on Reading Passages below. It is estimated that avoidable waste costs UK businesses up to 4.
Reducing waste in the workplace is about being efficient. By becoming more efficient, businesses not only increase profits but they also save natural resources. On the island of Jersey, for example, the amount of waste produced each year has doubled since A lot of waste for a small island! Waste audit Before starting a recycling scheme, perform an audit.
This will make you aware of how much waste you are producing in the company. Company policy Consider switching your office waste contractor to one that provides a recycling service. Buy recycled paper. Although this is sometimes more expensive, costs can be reduced by lowering consumption and using duplex printers. The waste paper will inevitably be produced in the workplace, but it is not necessary to discard it.
It can serve a variety of purposes before it is recycled, such as writing notes. Envelopes too can be re-used for internal mail. Plastic cups Rather than supplying disposable plastic cups in your workplace, get ceramic mugs that can be re-used. Electrical equipment Rather than giving up on any old electrical equipment and just throwing it away, why not try upgrading it?
This reduces waste, as well as avoiding the need to manufacture a new machine — a process which creates a large amount of waste. You could also consider donating your old computers to charities when it comes to replacing them. What does the writer think should be carried out in a company before it starts recycling? What machines can help to cut the stationery budget? What can be displayed in the workplace to publicise the recycling scheme?You have 20 minutes.
Plastic Bags. He sailed into a mass of floating plastic rubbish which took him and his crew a week to cross. The United Nations says there are now 18, pieces of plastic in every square kilometre of sea everywhere in the world.
A walk along any beach will give you some idea of the seriousness of plastic pollution. Plastic does not biodegrade. It photo degrades into smaller and smaller particles which then enter the food chain. Plastics contain cancer-causing chemicals such as vinyl chloride which travel along the food chain in increasing concentrations and end up in our fish and chips, along with hormone disruptors such as bisphenol A.
Scientists try to tell us that we are killing ourselves as well as other animals. At least species are, as I speak, being killed by plastic. Whales, dolphins, turtles and albatross confuse floating plastic, especially shopping bags and six pack rings, with jellyfish. A dead Minke whale, washed up on a Normandy beach, was found to have eaten plastic bags from supermarkets and had died a dreadful death.
According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, companies manufacture 5 billion plastic bags a year. Of all the plastic produced annually, half is for packaging which gets thrown out with the trash a few minutes after purchase. The same lobbies that work against electric vehicles and renewable energies, put governments under pressure not to act against plastic pollution.
These lobbies, acting on behalf of oil companies, represent an unsustainable approach to profit. To paraphrase the Cree Indian prophecy, only when we have wiped everything out will we realise that money cannot be eaten. Some countries have rebelled and banned plastic bags.
And the first was brave Bangladesh. Then China took the same decision and, according to CNN Asia, saves itself 37 million barrels of oil a year. Alright, then. Take a back pack or a folding shopping trolley. Change supermarket to one that provides biodegradable bags, made from potato starch for example. Use consumer power. Personally speaking, what I need to find now, is a supermarket that sells biodegradable bin liners, otherwise I still end up using plastic.
I recently spent a week in New Zealand on honeymoon and saw that everyone was using special paper bin liners. I wish we did something similar here in Spain. Think globally, act locally.
A small Australian town is now one step ahead of the rest of the world. The inhabitants of Bundanoon in New South Wales have banned plastic bottles from the town.
We need to follow their example and eliminate plastic from our lives, take care of the earth and vote for people we think will do the same.Found a mistake? Let us know!
Share this Practice Test. Garbage is a big problem all over the world. People buy and use a lot of things nowadays. After a while, they throw them away in the garbage bin. All the garbage is later thrown away or dumped outside the city.
These places are called landfill sites. In many cities, landfill sites are now full. About one-third of all the garbage is made of paper.
Another third of the garbage is a mix of glass, metal, plastic, and wood. The final third comes from food scraps. These are remains of food that are not eating any more. Food scraps are not a big garbage problem for the environment. Our natural world can get rid of food scraps. Insects and bacteria eat the food scraps and make them go away. But this does not happen with other materials. Plastic is very toxic to the environment. It poisons the earth and the water.
We use plastic for many things, such as combs or pens. Also, when we buy something from the supermarket, we get a plastic bag. As soon as we get home, we throw the bag away. Plastic is also used to make Styrofoam.When rubber was first commercially produced in Europe during the nineteenth century, it rapidly became a very important commodity, particularly in the fields of transportation and electricity.
However, during the twentieth century a number of new synthetic materials, called plastics, superseded natural rubber in all but a few applications. Rubber is a polymer—a compound containing large molecules that are formed by the bonding of many smaller, simpler units, repeated over and over again. The same bonding principle— polymerization —underlies the creation of a huge range of plastics by the chemical industry.
The first plastic was developed as a result of a competition in the USA. The prize was won by John Wesley Hyatt with a material called celluloid. Celluloid was made by dissolving cellulose, a carbohydrate derived from plants, in a solution of camphor dissolved in ethanol. This new material rapidly found uses in the manufacture of products such as knife handles, detachable collars and cuffs, spectacle frames and photographic film.
Without celluloid, the film industry could never have got off the ground at the end of the 19 th century. Celluloid can be repeatedly softened and reshaped by heat, and is known as a thermoplastic. InLeo Baekeland, a Belgian chemist working in the USA, invented a different kind of plastic, by causing phenol and formaldehyde to react together.
Baekeland called the material Bakelite, and it was the first of the thermosets—plastics that can be cast and moulded while hot, but cannot be softened by heat and reshaped once they have set. Bakelite was a good insulator, and was resistant to water, acids and moderate heat. With these properties it was soon being used in the manufacture of switches, household items such as knife handles, and electrical components for cars.
Soon chemists began looking for other small molecules that could be strung together to make polymers. In the s British chemists discovered that the gas ethylene would polymerize under heat and pressure to form a thermoplastic they called polythene. Polypropylene followed in the s. Both were used to make bottles, pipes and plastic bags.
And by adding certain chemicals, a soft form of PVC could be produced, suitable as a substitute for rubber in items such as waterproof clothing. This had a very low coefficient of friction, making it ideal for bearings, rollers, and non-stick frying pans. Polystyrene, developed during the s in Germany, was a clear, glass-like material, used in food containers, domestic appliances and toys.
Expanded polystyrene—a white, rigid foam—was widely used in packaging and insulation. Polyurethanes, also developed in Germany, found uses as adhesives, coatings, and—in the form of rigid foams—as insulation materials.
They are all produced from chemicals derived from crude oil, which contains exactly the same elements—carbon and hydrogen—as many plastics. The first of the man-made fibres, nylon, was also created in the s. He found that under the right conditions, two chemicals— hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid—would form a polymer that could be pumped out through holes and then stretched to form long glossy threads that could be woven like silk.
In the post-war years nylon completely replaced silk in the manufacture of stockings. Subsequently many other synthetic fibres joined nylon, including Orion, Acrilan and Terylene. Today most garments are made of a blend of natural fibres, such as cotton and wool, and man-made fibres that make fabrics easier to look after.
The great strength of plastic is its indestructibility. However, this quality is also something of a drawback: beaches all over the world, even on the remotest islands, are littered with plastic bottles that nothing can destroy. Nor is it very easy to recycle plastics, as different types of plastic are often used in the same items and call for different treatments.
Plastics can be made biodegradable by incorporating into their structure a material such as starch, which is attacked by bacteria and causes the plastic to fall apart. Other materials can be incorporated that gradually decay in sunlight—although bottles made of such materials have to be stored in the dark, to ensure that they do not disintegrate before they have been used.
Do the following statements agree with the information in Reading Passage? TRUE if the statement agrees with the information.Answer the Short Response Questions?
Enter your first and last name to get credit. Your name will be printed on your score sheet. Which best explains why the author begins the text by talking about magical garbage fairies? Which best defines the meaning of "incineration" as it is used in the text? Which was NOT cited in the third paragraph as an issue with landfilling? Which best expresses the meaning of the word "compacted" as it is used in the third paragraph?
Why do you believe this? Refer to the text in your response. Explain your argument completely.
Plastic would get into the compost and turn it into a pollutant. People wouldn't want to touch all of that gross rotting food. How do you know this? Use the text in your response. Which two methods of waste management do you believe are best for society?
Support your argument with text. Which two methods of waste management do you believe are worst for society? Refer to the text in your argument. Summarize the article. Be sure to cover the pros and cons of the four methods of waste management. Read the Text.Recycling is taking used materials and waste and then turning it into new, useful products. Recycling waste into new products reduces the amount of materials that would have been needed if the product had to be made all over again.
For example, most paper is made from trees, but if old paper is recycled, less trees would be needed. Recycling uses less energy, and helps with pollution control. First, the items to be recycled must be collected. Many communities require residents to recycle and collect the materials using large bins or cans.
The recyclables are picked up regularly, just like the other trash and waste products. Second, the recyclables must be sorted into the different materials. The most common materials include paper, plastic, glass, and aluminum, which must be separated from each other. Third, the recycled items must be processed at a recycling plant. Since there are different materials that need to be recycled, each has its own method of turning the old into the renewed.
Paper, including newspapers, magazines, cardboard, books, and envelopes can all be recycled into reusable products. At a paper recycling plant, the old paper is chopped into tiny pieces. Next, water is added, and the material is turned into pulp. The pulp is then cleaned to remove the old ink.
Finally, chemicals are added and the old paper is bleached white. It is now ready to be turned into new paper and other paper products. Plastic is also a common recyclable product, including water, soda, and other drink bottles; plastic bags, wrappers, and many more items. To recycle old plastic, it is first divided by type, and then ground into flakes or chips.
The flakes and chips are cleaned thoroughly, melted down and formed into pellets. The pellets are then used in a variety of ways by many different manufacturers. Glass recycling also includes soda and other drink bottles, as well as jars, broken pieces of glass, and many other glass products. Before the glass is recycled, though, the different plastic lids must first be separated from the bottles.
All of the glass is then cleaned thoroughly, and then crushed into tiny pieces. Next, it is melted and sent to manufacturers who add other substances depending on their use. The glass is then heated again and made into liquid glass. Finally, aluminum is another material recycled quite often, which also includes soda and juice cans, tomato cans, and all other products made from aluminum. At a metal recycling plant, a giant magnet is used to separate the steel cans from the aluminum cans.
A magnet will not attract aluminum so it is easy to separate the steel from the aluminum cans. The cans are then washed, crushed, and condensed. A hot furnace is used to remove the labeling, melted, made into bars, and finally flattened into sheets.
Two more things must take place for recycling to be successful. First, people must choose to recycle the things they use, and second, when buying things, it is helpful that people purchase items made using recycled materials like paper, plastic, glass, or aluminum. In summary, three steps for recycling include collecting, sorting, and processing. Each material also has several more steps that must occur in order for each it to be reused gain as a useful product.
Toggle navigation. Click here to enroll in premium subscription. A: Processing. B: Sorting. C: Collecting.This means that quality variations of the finished products can be avoided. All raw materials have been tested for outdoor use and are sufficiently UV-stabilised. B Optimised design for many years of use:.
Sustained quality and ruggedness of the domestic waste bins must prove itself in practice. The manufacturer Weber optimises its products with this intent.
Optimally dimensioned wall thicknesses and optimised design of the areas exposes to stresses and loads ensure ruggedness and long service life of the WEBER recycling bins.
C Certified two 2 and four 4 wheel mobile garbage bins with guaranteed quality. All mobile waste containers are certified by an independent testing agency. Not only a type sample is certified here but the production of the wheeled refuse bins is regularly monitored, to ensure that series products consistently meet the certified requirements as well.
D All mobile two 2 and four 4 wheel wheelie bins have received the German GS symbol for Tested Safety without exception. The regulation was created by the Committee for Product Safety AfPS and specifies limits for these carcinogenic substances.
Integrated production checks and product examinations ensure consistent high quality and numerous environmental aspects with the production of our domestic waste bins. Quality and environmental management systems are monitored regularly by external certifying agencies.
F Robustness and durability through high-grade materials and solid wall thicknesses. High-quality domestic waste bins and recycling containers from Weber, directly from the manufacturer. Write the correct letter, A-Fin boxes on your answer sheet. They have both household bins and recycling receptacles. The mobile waste storage bins can withstand a wide range of conditions. They have been tested for safety. They will last a very long time. They are checked by outside agencies.Plastic Ocean
They meet many requirements. They are made from strong materials and are protected from the suns rays. The Act provides for a basic annual paid leave entitlement of 4 weeks, although an employee's contract could give greater rights.